A cystoscopy is a procedure which allows your doctor to see inside of the lower urinary tract (urethra, prostate, bladder neck and bladder) using a narrow instrument with a lighted camera attached to the head of the scope called a cystoscope. Through the urethra, the cystoscope is inserted and slowly advances into the bladder. Through the scope, the physician is capable of seeing if any abnormalities exist from the urethra to the bladder. If the doctor wishes to biopsy the tissue he may by inserting a thin instrument into the cystoscope to remove a sample of the tissue. A cystoscopy may be used to evaluate the urinary tract for a variety of different reasons such as diagnosing bladder cancer, blood in urine, pelvic pain, repetitive urinary tract infections, urinary blockage and urinary stones. It is used to evaluate problems that cannot be clearly seen on CT scans and to further investigate problems detected by ultrasound.